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primary source of literature

May 14,  · A secondary source is a source that provides non-original or secondhand data or information. Secondary sources are written about primary sources. Research summaries reported in textbooks, magazines, and newspapers are considered secondary sources. They typically provide global descriptions of results with few details on the webinatrs.cf: Jennifer Cady. In scientific literature, a primary source is the original publication of a scientist's new data, results and theories. In political history, primary sources are documents such as official reports, speeches, pamphlets, posters, or letters by participants, official election returns and eyewitness accounts. Primary sources are original sources of information that have not yet been filtered through analysis, examination or interpretation. Typically, primary sources are contemporary to the events and individuals being researched. Primary sources differ both in content and format from discipline to discipline. Below are examples of primary sources Author: Stephen Sturgeon.


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In the study of history as an academic discipline, primary source of literature primary source also called an original source is an artifactdocument, diary, manuscriptautobiographyrecording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study.

It serves as an original source of information about the topic. Similar definitions can be used in library scienceand other areas of scholarship, although different fields have somewhat different definitions. In journalisma primary source can be a person with direct knowledge of a situation, or a document written by such a person. Primary sources are distinguished from secondary sourceswhich cite, comment on, or build upon primary sources.

Generally, accounts written after the fact with the benefit and possible distortions of hindsight are secondary. In scholarly writing, an important objective of classifying sources is to determine their independence and reliability.

In scholarly writing, the objective of classifying sources is to determine the independence and reliability of sources. For example, these ideas may be used to trace the history of scientific theories, literary elements and other information that primary source of literature passed from one author to another. In scientific literaturea primary source is the original publication of a scientist's new data, results and theories. In political historyprimary sources are documents such as official reports, speeches, pamphlets, posters, or letters by participants, official election returns and eyewitness accounts.

In the history of ideas or intellectual historythe main primary sources are books, essays and letters written by intellectuals; these intellectuals may include historians, whose books and essays are therefore considered primary sources for the intellectual historian, though they are secondary primary source of literature in their own topical fields. In religious historythe primary sources are religious texts and descriptions of religious ceremonies and rituals.

A study of cultural history could include fictional sources such as novels or plays. In a broader sense primary sources also include artifacts like photographs, newsreels, coins, primary source of literature, paintings or buildings created at the time.

Historians may also take archaeological artifacts and oral reports and interviews into consideration. Written sources may be divided into three types. In historiography, when the study of history is subject to historical scrutiny, a secondary source becomes a primary source. For a biography of a historian, that historian's publications would be primary sources. Documentary films can be considered a secondary source or primary source, depending on how much the filmmaker modifies the original sources.

Although many primary sources remain in private hands, others are located in archiveslibrariesmuseumshistorical societiesand special collections. These can be public or private. Some are affiliated with universities and colleges, while others are government entities. Materials relating to one area might be spread over a large number of different institutions. These can be distant from the original source of the document. For example, the Huntington Library in California houses a large number of documents from the United Kingdom.

In the US, digital copies of primary sources can be retrieved from a number of places. The Library of Congress maintains several digital collections where they can be retrieved. Some examples are American Memory and Chronicling America. The Digital Public Primary source of literature of America searches across the digitized primary source collections of many libraries, archives, and museums. The Internet Archive also has primary source materials in many formats.

In the UK, the National Archives provides a consolidated search of its own catalogue and a wide variety of other archives listed on the Access to Archives index. Digital copies of various classes of documents at the National Archives including wills are available from DocumentsOnline. Most of the available documents relate to England and Wales. Some digital copies of primary sources are available from the National Archives of Scotland.

Many County Record Offices collections are included in Access to Archives, while others have their own on-line catalogues. Many County Record Offices will supply digital copies of documents.

In other regions, Europeana has digitized materials from across Europe while the World Digital Library and Flickr Commons have items from all over the world. Trove has primary sources from Australia. Most primary source materials are not digitized and may only be represented online with a record or finding aid. Both digitized and not digitized materials can be found through catalogs such as WorldCatprimary source of literature, the Library of Congress catalogthe National Archives catalogand so on.

History as an academic discipline is based on primary sources, as evaluated by the community of scholars, who report their findings in books, articles and papers. Arthur Marwick says "Primary sources are absolutely fundamental to history.

In practice some primary source of literature have been destroyed, while others are not available for research. Perhaps the only eyewitness reports of an event may be memoirsautobiographies, or oral interviews taken years later. Sometimes the only evidence relating to an event or person in the distant past was written or copied decades or centuries later.

Manuscripts that are sources for classical texts can be copies of documents, or fragments of primary source of literature of documents. This is a common problem in classical studieswhere sometimes only a summary of a book or letter has survived.

Potential difficulties with primary sources have the result that history is usually taught in schools using secondary sources. Historians studying the modern period with the intention of publishing an academic article prefer to go back to available primary sources and to seek new in other words, forgotten or lost ones. Primary sources, whether accurate or not, offer new input into historical questions and most modern history revolves around heavy use of archives and special collections for the purpose of finding useful primary sources.

A work on history is not likely to be taken seriously as scholarship if it only cites secondary sources, as it does not indicate that original research has been done. However, primary sources — particularly those from before the 20th century — may have hidden challenges. For this reason, primary source of literature, the interpretation of primary texts is typically taught as part of an advanced college or postgraduate history course, although primary source of literature self-study or informal training is also possible.

The following questions are asked about primary sources: [ by whom? In many fields and contexts, such as historical writing, it is almost always advisable to use primary sources if possible, primary source of literature, and "if none are available, it is only with great caution that [the author] may proceed to make use of secondary sources, primary source of literature. A history, whose author draws conclusions from other than primary sources or secondary sources actually based on primary sources, is by definition fiction and not history at all.

However, a primary source is not necessarily more of an authority or better than a secondary source. There can be bias and tacit unconscious views which twist historical information. The errors may be corrected in secondary sources, which are often subjected to peer reviewcan be well documented, and are often written by historians working in institutions where methodological accuracy is important to the future of the author's career and reputation. Historians consider the accuracy and primary source of literature of the primary sources that they are using and historians subject both primary and secondary sources to a high level of scrutiny.

A primary source such as a journal entry or the online version, a blogat best, may only reflect one individual's opinion on events, which may or may not be truthful, accurate, or complete. Participants and eyewitnesses may misunderstand events or distort their reports, deliberately or not, to enhance their own image or importance. Such effects can increase over time, as people create a narrative that may not be accurate. The facts can be distorted to present the opposing sides in a negative light.

Barristers are taught that evidence in a court case may be truthful but may still be distorted to support or oppose the position of one of the parties. Many sources can be considered either primary or secondary, depending on the context in which they are examined. If a historical text discusses old documents to primary source of literature a new historical conclusion, it is considered to be a primary source for the new conclusion. Examples in which a source can be both primary and secondary include an obituary [21] or a survey of several volumes of a journal counting the frequency of articles on a certain topic.

Whether a source is regarded as primary or secondary in a given context may change, depending upon the present state of knowledge within the field. In some instances, the reason for identifying a text as the "primary source" may devolve from the fact that no copy of the original source material exists, or that it is the oldest extant source for the information cited. Historians must occasionally contend with primary source of literature documents that purport to be primary sources.

These forgeries have usually been constructed with a fraudulent purpose, such as promulgating legal rights, supporting false pedigrees, or promoting particular interpretations of historic events. The investigation of documents to determine their authenticity is called diplomatics, primary source of literature. For centuries, Popes used the forged Donation of Constantine to bolster the Papacy's secular power.

Among the earliest forgeries are false Anglo-Saxon chartersa number of 11th- and 12th-century forgeries produced by monasteries and abbeys to support a claim to land where the original document had been lost or never existed. One particularly unusual forgery of a primary source was perpetrated by Sir Edward Deringprimary source of literature, who placed false monumental brasses in a parish church.

Recently, forged documents have been placed within the UK National Archives in the hope of establishing a false provenance. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Primary literature. Not to be confused with Primary sector. Original source of information created at the time under study, primary source of literature. Pepperdine University. Retrieved primary source of literature January University Libraries, University of Maryland.

Ithaca College Library. An Introduction to the Historiography of Science. Cambridge University Press. Since a source is only a source in a specific historical context, the same source object can be both a primary or secondary source according to what it is used for. A Textbook of Historiography, B.

Orient Longman. That this imposition is basic in any understanding of the past is clear from the rules that documents should not be altered, or that any material damaging to a historian's argument or purpose should not be left out or suppressed.

These rules mean that the sources or the texts of the past have an integrity and that they do indeed 'speak for themselves', and that they are necessary constraints through which past reality imposes itself on the historian. Research Guides at Tufts University. Retrieved 15 January Ithaca, N. American Historical Review. The American Historical Review, Vol. Lafayette College Library.

 

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primary source of literature

 

Jan 13,  · The Nation is America's oldest weekly magazine. Its + years of reporting, opinion, and criticism make for an unmatched collection of primary source material, indispensable to anyone interested in the history of politics, culture, books and the arts. In scientific literature, a primary source is the original publication of a scientist's new data, results and theories. In political history, primary sources are documents such as official reports, speeches, pamphlets, posters, or letters by participants, official election returns and eyewitness accounts. Jul 17,  · Scientific literature is divided into two basic categories - "primary" and "secondary". A Primary Source is a document or physical object which was written or created during the time under study and is the result of original scientific research or observation. Some types of primary sources include.